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AntikMakler Mesolithic burials - Rites, symbols and social organisation of early postglacial Loose human bones from the Danish Mesolithic (S.A. Sørensen) 6. The symbol of the confederation as it developed during was thus the white cross itself, not necessarily in a red field, but attached to existing flags. eines Hornes zu begleiten, als eines Symbols oder vielmehr Dokumentes, das in - Gall upon the ancient danish Horn in the cathedral church of York.
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Hedeby quickly grew to become the largest settlement in Scandinavia and remained so until its eventual destruction in the later half of the 11th century.
From around AD, the Danes began a long era of well-organised raids across the coasts and rivers of Europe. Some of the raids were followed by a gradual succession of Danish settlers and during this epoch, large areas outside Scandinavia were settled by the Danes, including the Danelaw in England and countryside and newly established towns in Ireland, the Netherlands and northern France.
In the early 11th century, King Cnut the Great died ruled the extensive North Sea Empire for nearly 20 years, consisting of Denmark, England , Norway, southern Sweden and parts of northern Germany.
During the 10th century the royal seat of the Danes was moved from Lejre to Jelling in central Jutland, marking the foundation and consolidation of the Kingdom of Denmark.
In that year, the Danes raided and built a permanent camp on the Isle of Sheppey in south east England and settling followed from , when brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless wintered in East Anglia.
Halfdan and Ivar moved north and captured Northumbria in and York as well. Danelaw — a special rule of law — was soon established in the settled areas and shaped the local cultures there for centuries.
Cultural remains are still noticeable today. The Danes first arrived in Ireland in AD, at Rathlin Island , initiating subsequent raids and fortified trade settlements, so called longphorts.
There were many small skirmishes and larger battles with the native Irish clans in the following two centuries, with the Danes sometimes siding with allied clans.
In AD, at the Battle of Clontarf , the Vikings were eventually defeated and the remaining Danish settlers gradually assimilated with the Irish population.
The first Vikings appeared in Frisia , now part of the Netherlands and Germany , in AD, when Danes plundered coastal settlements and later the trade town of Dorestad became a frequent target of raids.
During this time, Frisia was ruled by the Franks and in the mid-9th century, the Danish chieftain of Roric received the western parts of the Netherlands as a fief and established here.
The Danes were probably involved in Frisia much earlier as Gregory of Tours c. The first known Viking raid in what now constitutes France, commenced in , when an attack was fought off on the coast of Aquitaine.
Several other smaller skirmishes with aggressive Vikings from primarily Danish territory have been recorded, including the first raid on the Seine in , but it was not until the year before Viking activity in France took off on a grand scale.
In that year, Danes established a lasting base on Noirmoutier island, a central spot for the European salt trade at the time, and poured into the Loire Valley on larger raid expeditions.
Many large scale raids followed all across the coasts and in-land rivers of Western Europe in subsequent decades. In the beginning of the 's, Vikings had established an encampment and base in the lower parts of the Seine river around Rouen.
In an effort to stop or reduce the relentless raids, Charles the Simple made a treaty in Saint-Clair-sur-Epte with the Viking chieftain of Rollo in , granting Rollo and his Danish men authority over the area we now know as Normandy.
This prompted Scandinavian settlers to establish themselves here and in the course of the next couple of centuries, the Norman culture emerged in Normandy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Odin of Lejre. An Odin silver figurine c. Further information: Nordic Iron Age. This net was supposedly woven by the Norns.
The Norns were the Shapers of Destiny or the fates of Viking mythology. The symbol is comprised of nine straight lines and contains all the images of the runes within it as well as all the possibilities of the past, present, and future.
It is a reminder that the past influences the present and that the present influences the future.
The Norse symbol of the Web of Wyrd. The troll cross, also called trollkors, is a Viking symbol which is meant to protect against evil elves , trolls , and dangerous magic.
It could be used to protect people, animals, possessions, and places. The amulet has the shape of an odal rune, which represents estate, heritage, and inheritance, and has been associated with home and family as well.
A Troll cross. Some say that the troll cross is actually only based on an ancient idea, but not ancient itself. Gungnir was the spear used by Odin, the ruler god of Norse mythology.
It was a magical weapon made by the dwarves through the order to the trickster god Loki. Loki brought the spear to Odin as a gift. This spear was so valued and sacred that it was said an oath sworn on the point of Gungnir could never be broken.
It is one of the symbols that denotes Odin as a war god. Lee Lawrie, Odin Today, the symbol is often connected with the Asatru faith.
In the past, drinking horns were used in traditional toasting rituals. The exact meaning of this Viking symbol is unknown, but it is usually connected with stories about Odhroerir — the mead of poetry - a magical mead brewed from the blood of Kvasir.
Odin went on a quest to obtain the mead and the Triple Horn is said to represent the three draughts of the mead. Triple Horn of Odin decorated with Scandinavian ornaments and runes.
Norse myth uses the mead of poetry as a symbol for poetic inspiration and wisdom. Anyone who drinks the mead would become a skald scholar , so the triple horn may be related to similar pursuits.
As a protective symbol, the Vegvisir was carved or inscribed on vessels going out to sea in order to ensure their safe return.
Vegvisir, one of the Icelandic magical staves. Although it is popularly called the Viking Compass, no one can say for certain if Vegvisir was a symbol used in that time or when exactly it emerged.
Top Image: Valkyrie in the heat of battle. Interested in the topic, she has studied many aspects of the enigmatic. Always attempting to find Read More.
I have no respect for someone who only cites her own books as reference. Dear Valda Roric, I can explain the meaning of all these, and other Sacred Symbols, and the meaning of their own names.
For example: Valknut. In the original drawing, the vertices of the triangles are directed to the other direction - to the left, but not to the top, as usually.
If directed to the left - it means death. Ancient Origins has been quoted by:. By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings.
Ancient Danish Symbols - Book ConditionGiger: Gemeindewappen Kanton Aargau. Leandri and J. Skeletal markers of activities and social status in Lithuanian and Latvian Mesolithic-Neolithic population R. Jensen 9. Calendar of events. Judith M. Field ensign used from ca. Funeral rituals of the population of the Eastern Lake Onega region based on materials from Popovo and Peschanitsa cemeteries S. Umbelino, C. II After the French invasion of Swiss territory in and the subsequent collapse of the Confederationthe authorities of the newly proclaimed Helvetic Republic confiscated all earlier flags, replacing them with a green-red-yellow tricolour. T Hom 8. Fontana, A. The law explicitly avoids specification of the shape of the shield, which was to be left to the "tastes of the current time and practical necessity". Loose human bones and secondary burials at Dudka and Szczepanki, the Stone Age foragers? Ismail-Weber
In this case, the symbolism in Norse mythology showing three multiplied by three might designate the nine worlds, which are united by the Yggdrasil tree.
In modern times Valknut, like Triquetra and Horn Triskelion, is often interpreted as a symbol pointing to heathen convictions. The Helm of Awe is one of the most powerful protective Viking symbols used not only for the purpose of protection from disease, but even to encourage all people who might suffer from depression or anxiety.
In Norse myths it is said that the Helm of Awe symbol was worn between the eyes to cause fear in your enemies, and to protect against the abuse of power.
Every day, Odin sends them out and they fly across the worlds to seek for important news and events.
The Norns were goddesses who ruled the fates of people, determined the destinies and lifespans of individuals. Norse people believed that everything we do in life affects future events and thus, all timelines, the past, present and future are connected with each other.
The troll cross is an amulet made of a circle of iron crossed at the bottom in a shape of an odal rune. It was worn by Scandinavian people as a protection against trolls and elves.
The symbol consists of three interlocked drinking horns, and is commonly worn or displayed as a sign of commitment to the modern Asatru faith.
The horns figure in the mythological stories of Odin and are recalled in traditional Norse toasting rituals. There are several account of the tale, but typically, Odin uses his wits and magic to procure the brew over three days time; the three horns reflect the three draughts of the magical mead.
Left: Gungnir - Viking symbol; Right: Odin Gungnir was a magical weapon created by the dwarves and given to Odin by Loki.
The Gungnir never missed its mark and like Mjölnir, the hammer of Thor, it always returned to Odin. The symbol was frequently inscribed on seagoing vessels to insure their safe return home.
The device was believed to show the way back home and protect seamen and their ships from storms. The Vegvisir was like a guide helping its bearer to find his way home.
Norse people believed that the Vegvisir had special powers and it was treated like talisman for luck, protection and blessings. This powerful symbol could help a person to find the right way in storms or bad weather whatever unfamiliar surroundings he or she may encounter.
The Vikings used many symbols in accordance to Norse mythology. Such symbols were widely used in Viking society and they represented elements of their beliefs and myths.
There are even some Viking symbols which still have unknown meanings. The following is a list of some of the most significant ancient Norse symbols.
Thor is an ancient god of war who was beloved by the Vikings. Therefore, his image is quite prominent in Norse mythology.
Thor was the son of the earth goddess Fyorgyn and Odin , the chief deity of Norse mythology. Public Domain. As a magical weapon , Mjolnir always returned to its master after it was thrown.
Also, when he used his hammer, Thor used to wear a special gauntlet. Dwarves are said to have forged the hammer for the god.
As an amulet of protection , the symbol of Mjolnir was very common and one of the most popular Viking symbols.
The Valknut is the Norse symbol for death in a battle. The meaning of the symbol is not totally clear, but it is linked to the idea of dying in battle.
The Stora Hammars I stone, where the valknut occurs in the most central and predominant position, alongside images interpreted as Odin with a characteristic spear hunting another figure into a burial mound, while a raven is overhead and another man is hanged.
This symbol appears on funerary stone carvings as a representation of the afterlife. It is also quite often associated with Odin - who had power over death.
When the symbol is drawn in one stroke, it is said that it has the power to protect against evil spirits.
The Valknut also resembles the old Celtic symbols representing rebirth and motherhood. As the symbol contains three triangles, the multiplied number three might represent the nine worlds of Norse mythology.
Yggdrasil is the tree which holds all of the nine worlds in its branches. An eagle was said to live at the top of the tree, while the dragon Nidhoggr resided at the bottom.
Four deer feed from the branches and three old wise women known as the Norns protect it. As a world tree, the figure of Yggdrasil appears in various forms in many mythologies across the globe.
For the Vikings it was also the creator of the first human beings, Ask and Embla, who sprung from its acorns. A Norse symbol for Yggdrasil.
Yggdrasil is also depicted on the Overhogdal Tapestry dating from the year The image containing the world tree depicts a representation of Ragnarök , the apocalypse that is also said to destroy it.
The Helm of Awe is a strong Norse symbol for protection from any sort of disease. This Viking symbol shows eight spiked arms surrounding a circle as if they are protecting it from all sides.
Some sources say that the Helm of Awe was worn between the eyes in order to induce fear in the heart of enemies. In the Poetic Edda , the shapeshifting dragon Fafnir suggests that he gets his invincibility from the Helm of Awe.
This symbol could provide spiritual and mental strength alongside physical protection. But it was also meant to protect one from abusing that power.
There are also variations to this symbol, such as a four-armed version without the perpendicular lines that appears in a 17th century Icelandic grimoire.
Some people believed it was most powerful if it was inscribed with spit or sweat. This net was supposedly woven by the Norns. All forms of life in Nature such as plants, seashells, or snowflakes have sacred geometry in their design and are good examples of sacred geometry in our everyday world.
Why are ancient symbols so important? Like written language, symbols carry with them meaning that allows us to communicate with each other.
But unlike language, many ancient symbols also contain something more. A deep meaning that lies in the base of our subconscious. Carl Jung called those symbols Archetypes as archaic images or universal thought-forms that influence the feelings and action of an individual.